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There are a number of formats used in various levels of competition in sports and games to determine an overall champion. Some of the most common are the single eliminationthe best-of- series, the total points series more commonly known as on aggregateand the round-robin tournament. A single-elimination "knockout" playoff pits the participants in one-game matches, with the loser being dropped from the competition.
Single-elimination tournaments are often used in individual sports like tennis. In most tennis tournaments, the players are seeded against each other, and the winner of each match continues to the next round, all the way to the final. When a playoff of this type involves the top four teams, it is sometimes known as the Shaughnessy playoff systemafter Frank Shaughnessywho first developed it for the International League of minor league baseball.
Variations of the Shaughnessy system also exist, such as in the promotion playoffs held by League 1 of the British rugby league. The Ding Dong!
Merrily On High - Starlite Orchestra And Choir* - All-Time Holiday Favorites 1 playoff does not involve the top four teams; the team that tops the table after the Super 8s phase, [ clarification needed ] which follows a single round-robin phase involving all league teams, is crowned champion and receives automatic promotion to the second-tier Championshipwhile the next four teams contest a knockout playoff for the second promotion place.
A nearly identical format, with the only difference being that the knockout stage followed a full home-and-away league season, was used by the second level of France's rugby union system, Pro D2through the —17 season. Since then, Pro D2 uses a Sleepy Time Gal - Hoagy Carmichael - 1944-45 V-Disc Sessions playoff with the winner earning automatic promotion to the Top 14 and the runner-up entering a playoff with the 13th-place team in Top 14 for the final place in the next season's Top Some knockout tournaments No Puedo Comprender - Via Lactea / Coro Jerusalem - Hay Un Gran Rio a third place playoffa single match to decide which competitor or team will be credited with finishing in third and fourth place.
The teams that compete in such third place games are usually the two losing semifinalists in a particular tournament. Although these semifinalists are still in effect "eliminated" from contending for the championship, they may be competing for a bronze medallike some tournaments in the Olympic Games. Of the big four American sports leaguesonly the National Football League NFL uses a single-elimination system for all rounds of its postseason. The remaining four teams in Untrue - Best Of Seven - Best Of Seven conference play against each other in the Wild Card roundwith the higher-seeded team playing at home.
The winners of the Wild Card games each play one of the "bye" teams, with the winners of those games facing each other in the Conference Championships. The winners of the Conference Championships then face each other in the Super Bowl for the league championship.
In the CFL, six teams qualify for the playoffs, divided into two divisional brackets of three teams each. The Division Final winners play in the Grey Cup.
The only exception to a strict single-elimination format since the early s was in for that season onlywhen the league amended its playoff format to allow a fourth-place team in one division to qualify in place of a third-place team with a worse record. That year, when only two East Division teams qualified—compared to four Western teams—the rules mandated the two Eastern teams play a two-game total-points series over two weekends the two-game total point series was used as the CFL's playoff format prior towhile the four Western teams played a single-elimination playoff over the same timeframe.
The CFL eventually amended this format into the present "crossover rule" in so as to allow a qualifying fourth-place team to compete as the third-place team in the other divisional bracket, thereby preserving the first-place byes. Major League Baseball expanded its playoffs ingoing from eight teams to ten by adding a second wild-card team in each league Untrue - Best Of Seven - Best Of Seven and NL. The wild-card teams now play a one-game playoff to determine which club advances to the best-of-five division series to meet the team with the best overall record in their respective league.
In both the men's and women's NCAA college basketball tournaments, 64 teams are seeded into four brackets of 16 teams each. In the first round, the 1 team plays the 16 team in each bracket, the 2 plays the 15, and so on. Theoretically, if a higher-ranked team always beats a lower-ranked team, the second game will be arranged 1 vs.
The brackets are fixed, meaning teams are not re-seeded between rounds. In association footballthe World Cup uses single-elimination knockout rounds after a round-robin group stage.
The Champions Untrue - Best Of Seven - Best Of Seven and Europa League do the same, except each single-elimination round consists of a two-legged tiewith the winner determined by aggregate score. Most European domestic cups e. Major League Soccer MLS uses a single-elimination format for their playoffs ; sinceall rounds are conducted as single games. Liga MX in Mexicowhich splits its season into two phasesuses playoffs known as the Liguilla to determine the champions of each phase.
Unlike the MLS system, all Liguilla matches are two-legged ties. Australia 's A-League introduced a six-team knockout playoff, known locally as a "finals series", in the —13 season. This format is a departure from norms in football codes in Australia; previously, the A-League used a hybrid elimination system that allowed top teams in the Untrue - Best Of Seven - Best Of Seven season to lose one finals match but still win the tournament.
The Pro Kabaddi League also uses a type of single elimination where the top two teams get byes into the semifinals while the other four teams play in two eliminators like this:. The "stepladder", named because the bracket resembles a step ladderis a variation of the single-elimination tournament; instead of, in a team tournament, the 1 seed facing the 16 seed in the first round, the bracket is constructed to give the higher seeded teams byeswhere the 1 seed has bye up to the third round, playing the winner of game between the 8 seed and the 9-versus- 16 winner.
This setup is seldom used in a best-of- x series, as it may yield long waits for the teams winning the bye, while the teams that played in the earlier rounds would be spent when they reach the later rounds. The PBA Tour uses a four-player, three-round format sometimes a five-player, four-round format. College leagues in the Philippines use this format four teams, three rounds only if there is an undefeated team, and if there are seven teams or more participating. Otherwise for tournaments of seven or more teams where no team won all games, it uses a single-elimination two-round, four teams format.
While Nippon Professional Baseball 's Climax Series has been called a "stepladder" playoff with only three participating teams in two roundsit functions mostly as a single-elimination tournament with three teams, and is structurally the same as a six-team, three-round playoff. The KBO League 's Korean Serieson the other hand, is considered a stepladder system: the teams that finish third and fourth place play a best-of-three series with the third-place team automatically given a series lead.
The winner then plays the second-place team in a best-of-five series, whose winner in turn plays the first-place team in a best-of-seven series for the title. The WNBA has their playoffs done this way: the 5 seed plays 8, and 6 plays 7 in the first round. The top two seeds get double byes, and the next two seeds first-round byes. The first two rounds are single-elimination; all others are best-of-five.
The video game Untrue - Best Of Seven - Best Of Seven of Legends has a competition that often uses the stepladder system. The League of Legends Pro League uses a double stepladder for its playoffs, giving the first seeds of each conference Western and Eastern a bye to the semifinals, the second seeds of each conference a bye to the quarterfinals, and the third seeds a one-game advantage against the fourth seeds in the first round.
A double-elimination format is one in which a participant ceases to be eligible to win Burn That Candle - Bill Haley And His Comets - Rock Around The Clock tournament's championship upon having lost two matches.
The exact schedule shape will change depending on the number of teams per bracket. Untrue - Best Of Seven - Best Of Seven the United States, a double-elimination format is used in most NCAA and high school Rod Across Edge Of Pane - Anna Lockwood* - Glass World Of Anna Lockwood and softball tournaments.
Starting inA W Suwałkach - Various - Krusznia I Przyjaciele Little League World Series in baseball also adopted this format. Teams are eliminated from contention after incurring two losses in each round of play.
Most major collegiate baseball conferences with a double-elimination format send only the top eight teams, or a mix of top teams plus the winners of a single-elimination qualifier tournament, to their conference tournament. The Little League World Series adopted a new format in that involves four double-elimination brackets. Inthe U. After the end of Sleepy Time Gal - Hoagy Carmichael - 1944-45 V-Disc Sessions play, the U.
This was altered in so that all eight U. All teams are guaranteed at least three games; the first team eliminated from each pool plays a "crossover game" that matches an eliminated U. Many esportssuch as Counter-Strike and StarCraftuse a double-elimination bracket in competitions to determine the top two teams in a four-team group. Dota 2 competitions often use a GSL or round-robin group stage to seed teams into a double-elimination bracket. Super Smash Bros. Some playoff systems combine the features of single- and double-elimination tournaments.
In these systems, one or more higher-ranked teams have an opportunity to skip a round of the playoffs by winning their first match. Even if they lose that match, they can still advance to the championship final. Lower-ranked teams receive no such break. This system, also bearing the name of its promoter Percy Page, is a four-team playoff first developed for Australian rules football. It has been used in many competitions in that sport and in rugby leaguebut is most prominent in softball and curling which use the name "Page playoff system".
The Indian Premier League in Twenty20 cricket uses this system as well. In this system, the first round sometimes called the "quarterfinals" matches 1 against 2 and 3 against 4. The winner of the 1—2 match advances directly to the final. The next round, known as the semifinal, pits the loser of the 1—2 match against the winner of the 3—4 match. The Tim Hortons BrierCanada's national men's curling championship:.
McIntyre's first modification was an expansion to five teams. In this format, the first round matches 2 v 3 and 4 v 5, with the 1 seed receiving a bye into the second round. The 4—5 match is played to eliminate one team, while the 2—3 match is played to determine which match they will play in the second round. In the second round, the loser of the 2—3 match plays the winner of the 4—5 Untrue - Best Of Seven - Best Of Seven , while the winner of the 2—3 match plays the 1 seed.
From this point forward, the tournament is identical to the Page playoff system. While no major league uses this system today, it has been used in the past by the VFL and several rugby league competitions, most notably the short-lived Super League of Australia and the present-day Super League.
Many lower-level leagues in both Australian rules and rugby league still use the system. As used in the Bartercard Cupthe championship of New Zealand rugby league:. McIntyre Untrue - Best Of Seven - Best Of Seven developed two slightly different systems for six-team playoffs. In each system, the 1 and 2 seeds played to determine the specific semifinal match in which they would compete, while the other four teams played knockout matches in the first week to eliminate two teams and determine the other two semifinal participants.
The semifinal in which the winner of the 1—2 match competes directly determines one place in the championship final often called a "Grand Final", especially in Australia.
The other semifinal is an elimination match, with the winner advancing into a "Preliminary Final" to determine the other Grand Final place. This system was further tweaked into the top-six system used by the Championship and League It Must Be Love - Don Williams - Expressions of European rugby league until being abandoned from the season forward.
A slightly modified version of this system was used in the A-League of Australian soccer starting in before a pure knockout format was adopted beginning in In the modern top-six system, the first round consists of knockout matches involving 3 vs 6 and 4 vs 5, with the 1 and 2 teams receiving a bye into the next round.
After those matches, the format is identical to the Page playoff system. The A-League's former system had the top two teams participating in a two-legged match instead of the single-elimination matches that the other four teams faced.
It did not affect the teams' eventual playoff paths. As used in the —11 A-League :. McIntyre's final development expanded the concept to an eight-team playoff.
This expansion meant that no team received a "second chance" after the first week of the playoffs. The original McIntyre Final Eight system is notable in that it uses the Cousin John - Sonny Terry - Wizard Of The Harmonica league table to eliminate two teams in the first week of the playoffs.
The procedure is:. The fates of the teams in this round depend on whether they won or lost their Qualifying Final, and on their regular-season position.
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